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Mechanism of bioactivation and covalent binding of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

Leung, Kwan H. ; Yao, Ming ; Stearns, Ralph ; Chiu, Shuet-Hing Lee

Chemico-Biological Interactions, 1995, Vol.97(1), pp.37-51 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Mechanism of bioactivation and covalent binding of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
  • Author: Leung, Kwan H. ; Yao, Ming ; Stearns, Ralph ; Chiu, Shuet-Hing Lee
  • Description: Studies were undertaken to investigate the mechanism of bioactivation and covalent binding of TNT. Incubation of [ 14 C]TNT with rat liver microsomes in the presence of an NADPH generating system resulted in metabolism and covalent binding to microsomal proteins. Timedependence studies showed that TNT was rapidly reduced to yield 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4HA), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A) as intermediates which were further metabolized to form 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4DA) and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6DA). In contrast to the rapid disappearance of TNT, formation of covalent protein adducts increased with time, suggesting that the reactive intermediate was likely to be formed not directly from TNT but from proximal intermediates such as 4HA. The hypothesis that 4HA was more readily converted to the reactive intermediate than TNT was further supported by the increased levels of covalent adduct formation when [ 14 C]4HA was incubated directly with liver microsomes. Covalent binding of TNT and 4HA was dependent on oxygen concentration. Higher levels of covalent adducts were formed when TNT was incubated aerobically (up to 50% oxygen concentration) than under anaerobic conditions. Covalent binding of [ 14 C]4HA also increased with increasing oxygen concentrations. These results suggest that the reactive intermediate is likely to be an oxidized metabolite of 4HA, e.g. 4-nitroso-2,6-dinitrotoluene. Compounds containing a free sulfhydryl group (cysteine, N -acetylcysteine, GSH or 3,4-dichlorobenzenethiol) decreased the amount of covalent binding to various degrees, suggesting the involvement of the sulfhydryl group in adduct formation with TNT following bioactivation. Metabolic activation of TNT by liver microsomes required NADPH but not NADH as the cofactor. Incubation of [ 14 C]TNT with purified rat liver NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions yielded exclusively 4HA. In contrast, 2A and 4A were formed following incubation of TNT with the reconstituted system containing cytochrome P450, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine. These observations suggest that the initial reduction of the nitro group can be catalyzed by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase alone but cytochrome P450 is needed in the reduction of the hydroxylamine to the amine.
  • Is Part Of: Chemico-Biological Interactions, 1995, Vol.97(1), pp.37-51
  • Identifier: ISSN: 0009-2797 ; DOI: 10.1016/0009-2797(94)03606-9
  • Subjects: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene ; Metabolism ; Covalent Binding ; 2a, 2-Amino-4,6-Dinitrotoluene ; 4a, 4-Amino-2,6-Dinitrotoluene ; 4,4′-Az, 2,2′,6,6′-Tetranitro-4,4′-Azoxytoluene ; 2,4da, 2,4-Diamino-6-Nitrotoluene ; 2,6da, 2,6-Diamino-4-Nitrotoluene ; 2ha, 2-Hydroxylamino-4,6-Dinitrotoluene ; 4ha, 4-Hydroxylamino-2,6-Dinitrotoluene ; 2no, 2-Nitroso-4,6-Dinitrotoluene ; 4no, 4-Nitroso-2,6-Dinitrotoluene ; Tnba, 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzyl Alcohol ; Tnt, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene
  • Language: English

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