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Aristotle's First Principles

Irwin, Terence

1990

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  • Title:
    Aristotle's First Principles
  • Author: Irwin, Terence
  • Description: Aristotle's reliance on dialectic as a method of philosophy appears to conflict with his metaphysical realist view of his conclusions. This book explores Aristotle's philosophical method and the merits of his conclusions, and shows how he defends dialectic against the objection that it cannot justify a metaphysical realist's claims.The author does not presuppose extensive previous acquaintance with Aristotle. Greek texts are translated, and Greek words transliterated. - -- I. The emergence of the problem: The problem of first principles -- Inquiry and dialectic -- Constructive dialectic -- Puzzles and substance -- The formal cause -- Conditions for science -- Puzzles about science -- II. Solutions to the problem: The universal science -- The science of being -- Substance and essence -- Essence and form -- Form and substance -- III. Applications of the solution: The soul as substance -- Soul and mind -- Action -- The good of rational agents -- The virtues of rational agents -- The goodof others -- The state -- Justice -- The consequences of virtue and vice -- Reconsiderations -- Notes.
    Intro -- Contents -- Abbreviations -- I: THE EMERGENCE OF THE PROBLEM -- 1. The Problem of First Principles -- 1. First principles -- 2. Realism -- 3. Dialectic and philosophy -- 4. Puzzles about dialectic -- 5. Aristotle's development -- 6. Aristotle's conception of philosophy -- 7. The emergence of the problem -- 8. Solutions to the problem -- 9. Applications of the solution -- 2. Inquiry and Dialectic -- 10. Aims of inquiry -- 11. The study of method -- 12. Ways to first principles -- 13. Empirical starting-points -- 14. The accumulation of data -- 15. Induction -- 16. The evaluation of theories -- 17. Conclusions on Aristotle's empirical method -- 18. The functions of dialectic -- 19. The starting-point of dialectic -- 20. Dialectical puzzles -- 21. Dialectical puzzles and the aims of dialectic -- 22. The construction of a theory -- 23. The evaluation of dialectical theories -- 24. The special role of dialectic -- 25. Questions about dialectic -- 3. Constructive Dialectic -- 26. Positive functions for dialectic -- 27. The nature of the categories -- 28. Substance and the categories -- 29. Inherence and strong predication -- 30. Substance and quality -- 31. Substance and change -- 32. Substance and essential properties -- 33. The anomaly of differentiae -- 34. The dialectical search for first principles -- 35. The role of dialectic -- 36. The defence of first principles -- 37. General features of change -- 4. Puzzles about Substance -- 38. Substances and subjects -- 39. Basic subjects -- 40. Matter -- 41. Universals -- 42. The dependent status of universals -- 43. The independence of first substances -- 44. Weaknesses of dialectic -- 45. Principles of change -- 46. Puzzles about unqualified becoming -- 47. Matter as substance -- 48. Form as substance -- 49. Resulting difficulties -- 5. The Formal Cause -- 50. Nature and cause -- 51. The four causes -- 52. Causes and first principles -- 53. Form and matter as causes -- 54. Further difficulties about form -- 55. Disputes about teleology -- 56. The difference between final causation and coincidence -- 57. The arguments for teleology -- 58. The basis of the argument for teleology -- 59. Teleology and necessity -- 60. Teleology and substance -- 61. Further developments -- 6. Conditions for Science -- 62. Science and justification -- 63. Science and universals -- 64. Explanatory properties and basic subjects -- 65. Explanatory properties and the arguments about substance -- 66. Natural priority in demonstration -- 67. Natural priority compared with epistemic priority -- 68. The case for circular demonstration -- 69. The rejection of coherence as a source of justification -- 70. The rejection of an infinite regress -- 71. Foundationalism -- 72. The status of first principles -- 7. Puzzles about Science -- 73. Intuition -- 74. The doctrine of intuition -- 75. Intuition and inquiry -- 76. Dialectic and justification -- 77. Criticisms of dialectic -- 78. Objections to Aristotle's solution -- 79. Intuiti.
    on and the common principles -- 80. Difficulties in Aristotle's position -- 81. Consequences of Aristotle's position -- 82. The unsolved puzzles -- II: SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM -- 8. The Universal Science -- 83. The aims of metaphysics -- 84. Wisdom and scepticism -- 85. Universal science and the four causes -- 86. The character of universal science -- 87. Puzzles about universal science -- 88. Methodological puzzles -- 89. Substantive puzzles -- 90. Puzzles and preliminary questions -- 91. The possibility of a universal science -- 92. The object of universal science -- 93. The universal science contrasted with demonstrative science -- 94. The universal science contrasted with dialectic -- 95. The dialectical character of universal science -- 96. The task of the universal science -- 9. The science of Being -- 97. Arguments of universal science -- 98. The defence of the principle of non-contradiction -- 99. From non-contradiction to essence and substance -- 100. The dialectical character of the argument -- 101. The status of the conclusion -- 102. Protagoras and the science of being -- 103. The reply to Protagoras -- 104. Scepticism and the science of being -- 105. The reply to scepticism -- 106. The knowledge of first principles -- 10. Substance and Essence -- 107. From being to substance -- 108. The priority of substance -- 109. Criteria for substance -- 110. Substance as subject -- 111. Strategy -- 112. Subject as matter -- 113. Further tests for substance -- 114. Essence and subject -- 115. A revised criterion for substance -- 116. A preliminary solution of the puzzles -- 117. Essence as particular -- 118. Essence as subject -- 119. The progress of the argument -- 11. Essence and Form -- 120. Substance and potentiality -- 121. Substance and actuality -- 122. Potentiality -- 123. Potentiality and possibility -- 124. Degrees of potentiality -- 125. Proximate potentiality -- 126. Conditions for potentiality -- 127. Potentiality without change -- 128. Form as actuality -- 129. Form and matter in definitions -- 130. Formal and material essences -- 131. Types of matter -- 132. Types of compounds -- 133. The essence of natural substances -- 12. Form and Substance -- 134. Particulars as forms and compounds -- 135. Particular forms as substances -- 136. The nature of particular forms -- 137. The role of particular forms -- 138. Particular forms and the criteria for substance -- 139. Particular forms as primary substances -- 140. Objections to universals as substances -- 141. The case for universal substances -- 142. The status of particular substances -- 143. The difference between universals and properties -- 144. Particulars and universals as substances -- 145. The primacy of particular substances -- 146. Results of the Metaphysics -- 147. The role of a priori and empirical argument -- 148. First philosophy and strong dialectic -- III: APPLICATIONS OF THE SOLUTION -- 13. The Soul as Substance -- 149. Aristotle's task -- 150. Puzzles about the soul --.
    151. The solution -- 152. The relation of soul to body -- 153. Answers to puzzles -- 154. The contribution of first philosophy -- 155. Dualism -- 156. Materialism -- 157. Empirical argument, dialectic, and first philosophy -- 158. Soul and mind -- 14. Soul and Mind -- 159. Perception as a state of the soul -- 160. Perception as process and activity -- 161. The accounts of perception -- 162. Form and matter in perception -- 163. Realism about perceptible qualities -- 164. The rejection of realism -- 165. The infallibility of the senses -- 166. Complex perception -- 167. Appearance -- 168. Appearance and thought -- 169. Thought -- 170. Thought and inference -- 171. Thought, content, and structure -- 172. The cognitive faculties -- 15. Action -- 173. Desire and perception -- 174. The unity of desire -- 175. Desire and apparent good -- 176. Reason and desire -- 177. Rational desires -- 178. The scope of deliberation -- 179. Rational agency and the good -- 180. The temporal aspects of rational agency -- 181. Rational agency and responsibility -- 182. Aspects of responsibility -- 183. The form of human beings -- 16. The Good of Rational Agents -- 184. Moral and political argument -- 185. The content of ethics -- 186. The direction of moral argument -- 187. Tasks for the Politics -- 188. The aims of the Politics -- 189. Difficulties in political argument -- 190. Strong dialectic in political theory -- 191. The final good -- 192. The completeness of the final good -- 193. The self-sufficiency of the final good -- 194. Rational agency and the human function -- 195. Rational agency and human capacities -- 196. Rational agency and happiness -- 197. Self-realization -- 198. Self-realization and human good -- 17. The Virtues of Rational Agents -- 199. Virtue, happiness, and nature -- 200. Virtue, reason, and desire -- 201. Concern for a self -- 202. Self, essence, and character -- 203. Self-love and self-realization -- 204. Rational control and self-regarding virtues -- 205. Degrees of rational control -- 206. The scope of rational control -- 207. The defence of common beliefs -- 18. The Good of Others -- 208. Altruism and the moral virtues -- 209. Friendship and altruism -- 210. Self-love and altruism -- 211. The defence of friendship -- 212. The friend as another self -- 213. Extended altruism and the moral virtues -- 214. The extension of friendship -- 215. The political community and the human good -- 216. Political activity -- 217. The complete community -- 19. The State -- 218. Conceptions of the state -- 219. The human good and the citizen -- 220. The human good and leisure -- 221. Leisure as a condition of freedom -- 222. Aristotle's misuse of his argument -- 223. Moral education as a task for the state -- 224. The defence of moral education -- 225. The apparent conflict between freedom and moral education -- 226. Aspects of freedom -- 227. The reconciliation of freedom and moral education -- 20. Justice -- 228. General justice -- 229. The problem of.
  • Publication Date: 1990
  • Publisher: Oxford: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
  • Identifier: E-ISBN: 9780191519918 ; ISBN: 9780198247173
  • Subjects: Aristotle ; Methodology -- History
  • Language: English
  • Source: Ebook Central Perpetual and DDA titles (ProQuest)

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