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Fungal farming in a snail

Silliman, Brian R ; Newell, Steven Y

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 December 2003, Vol.100(26), pp.15643-8 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Fungal farming in a snail
  • Author: Silliman, Brian R ; Newell, Steven Y
  • Description: Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production.
  • Is Part Of: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 December 2003, Vol.100(26), pp.15643-8
  • Identifier: ISSN: 0027-8424 ; PMID: 14657360 Version:1
  • Subjects: Fungi -- Growth & Development ; Snails -- Microbiology
  • Language: English

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