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A high-resolution X-ray and optical study of SN 1006: asymmetric expansion and small-scale structure in a type IA supernova remnant

Winkler, P. Frank ; Williams, Brian J ; Petre, Robert ; Hwang, Una ; Reynolds, Stephen P ; Long, Knox S ; Katsuda, Satoru

Astrophysical Journal, 01 February 2014, Vol.781(2) [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    A high-resolution X-ray and optical study of SN 1006: asymmetric expansion and small-scale structure in a type IA supernova remnant
  • Author: Winkler, P. Frank ; Williams, Brian J ; Petre, Robert ; Hwang, Una ; Reynolds, Stephen P ; Long, Knox S ; Katsuda, Satoru
  • Description: We introduce a deep (670 ks) X-ray survey of the entire SN 1006 remnant from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, together with a deep Hα image of SN 1006 from the 4 m Blanco telescope at CTIO. Comparison with Chandra images from 2003 gives the first measurement of the X-ray proper motions around the entire periphery, carried out over a 9 yr baseline. We find that the expansion velocity varies significantly with azimuth. The highest velocity of ∼7400 km s{sup –1} (almost 2.5 times that in the northwest (NW)) is found along the southeast (SE) periphery, where both the kinematics and the spectra indicate that most of the X-ray emission stems from ejecta that have been decelerated little, if at all. Asymmetries in the distribution of ejecta are seen on a variety of spatial scales. Si-rich ejecta are especially prominent in the SE quadrant, while O and Mg are more uniformly distributed, indicating large-scale asymmetries arising from the explosion itself. Neon emission is strongest in a sharp filament just behind the primary shock along the NW rim, where the pre-shock density is highest. Here the Ne is likely interstellar, while Ne within the shell may include a contribution from ejecta. Within the interior of the projected shell we find a few isolated 'bullets' of what appear to be supernova ejecta that are immediately preceded by bowshocks seen in Hα, features that we interpret as ejecta knots that have reached relatively dense regions of the surrounding interstellar medium, but that appear in the interior in projection. Recent three-dimensional hydrodynamic models for Type Ia supernovae display small-scale features that strongly resemble the ones seen in X-rays in SN 1006; an origin in the explosion itself or from subsequent hydrodynamic instabilities both remain viable options. We have expanded the search for precursor X-ray emission ahead of a synchrotron-dominated shock front, as expected from diffusive shock acceleration theory, to numerous regions along both the northeast and southwest rims of the shell. Our data require that a precursor be thinner than about 3'', and fainter than about 5% of the post-shock peak. These limits suggest that the magnetic field is amplified by a factor of seven or more in a narrow precursor region, promoting diffusive particle acceleration.
  • Is Part Of: Astrophysical Journal, 01 February 2014, Vol.781(2)
  • Identifier: ISSN: 0004-637X ; E-ISSN: 1538-4357 ; DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/781/2/65
  • Subjects: Astrophysics, Cosmology And Astronomy ; Acceleration ; Asymmetry ; Density ; Distribution ; Emission ; Explosions ; Hydrodynamic Model ; Instability ; Magnetic Fields ; Proper Motion ; Resolution ; Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy ; Space Dependence ; Spectra ; Supernova Remnants ; Supernovae ; Telescopes ; Three-Dimensional Calculations ; X Radiation ; Astronomy & Astrophysics ; Physics
  • Language: English
  • Source: SciTech Connect (U.S. Dept. of Energy - Office of Scientific and Technical Information)

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