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Understanding the magic of the bicycle : basic scientific explanations to the two-wheeler's mysterious and fascinating behavior

Joseph W. Connolly author. Morgan & Claypool Publishers, publisher.; Institute of Physics (Great Britain), publisher.

2016

Online access

  • Title:
    Understanding the magic of the bicycle : basic scientific explanations to the two-wheeler's mysterious and fascinating behavior
  • Author: Joseph W. Connolly author.
  • Morgan & Claypool Publishers, publisher.; Institute of Physics (Great Britain), publisher.
  • Description: Preface -- 1. Introduction--the magic of the wheel -- 2. The evolution of the bicycle -- 2.1. Beginnings -- 2.2. Baron Karl Von Drais's running machine -- 2.3. The boneshaker -- 2.4. Early refinements -- 2.5. High-wheelers -- 2.6. Further refinements -- 2.7. The safety bicycle -- 2.8. Pneumatic tires -- 2.9. Bearings -- 2.10. Rider position -- 2.11. Materials.
    3. A review of basic ideas -- 3.1. Algebra -- 3.2. Trigonometry -- 3.3. Vectors -- 3.4. Head to tail method of vector arithmetic -- 3.5. Resolution into components -- 3.6. Units of measurement -- 3.7. Unit conversions -- 3.8. Density -- 3.9. Concepts of mass -- 3.10. Center of mass -- 3.11. Our standard rider.
    4. Linear motion -- 4.1. Kinematics--the study of motion -- 4.2. Headwinds and tailwinds -- 4.3. Riding uphill and downhill.
    5. Forces--Newton's laws of motion -- 5.1. Newton's First Law of Motion -- 5.2. Newton's Second Law of Motion -- 5.3. Units of force, motion, mass -- 5.4. Newton's Third Law of Motion -- 5.5. Role of arm muscles -- 5.6. Frictional forces--a simple model -- 5.7. Static and sliding friction -- 5.8. Friction as the propulsion force in walking -- 5.9. The acceleration and deceleration of the bicycle -- 5.10. Maximum acceleration of a bicycle -- 5.11. Velocity and acceleration of a bicycle -- 5.12. Resistive forces on a moving bicycle -- 5.13. Air resistance -- 5.14. Rolling resistance -- 5.15. Bearing resistance -- 5.16. Coasting--simplified analysis -- 5.17. Force analysis walking versus riding -- 5.18. Average versus instantaneous pedal force.
    6. Gravity -- 6.1. The basic physics of gravity -- 6.2. Weight of objects -- 6.3. 'Weight' of object as measured by a scale -- 6.4. Force of gravity on a slope--the basic physics -- 6.5. Riding uphill at a constant speed -- 6.6. Terminal speed -- 6.7. Terminal speed coasting downhill on a bike -- 6.8. Personalized determination of resistive force parameters.
    7. Momentum-impulse -- 7.1. The basic physics of momentum -- 7.2. Momentum and Newton's Second Law -- 7.3. Impulse -- 7.4. Momentum and impulse aspects of bicycle accidents.
    8. Work-energy-power -- 8.1. Work -- 8.2. Kinetic energy -- 8.3. Frictional effects -- 8.4. Gravitational potential energy -- 8.5. Conservation of energy -- 8.6. Energy conversion between kinetic and potential on the bicycle -- 8.7. Power--the basic physics -- 8.8. Power and kinetic energy -- 8.9. Power output to overcome resistive forces on a bike -- 8.10. Efficiency considerations in muscular effort -- 8.11. Average speed versus average power.
    9. Temperature and heat -- 9.1. Temperature and its measurement -- 9.2. Heat -- 9.3. Units of heat -- 9.4. Heat generation on a bicycle -- 9.5. Mechanisms for heat transfer -- 9.6. Conduction -- 9.7. Convection -- 9.8. Radiation -- 9.9. Evaporation -- 9.10. Cooling effects of evaporation -- 9.11. Role of cycling clothing -- 9.12. Wind effects on cooling capacity of evaporation -- 9.13. Humidity and dew point -- 9.14. Specific heat.
    10. Rotational motion -- 10.1. Kinematics of circular motion -- 10.2. Dynamics of circular motion -- 10.3. Rotational kinetic energy -- 10.4. Moment of inertia of non-point masses -- 10.5. Moment of inertia and rotational kinetic energy of bicycle wheel -- 10.6. Angular momentum -- 10.7. Role of angular momentum in a bicycle.
    11. Torque--applications to the bicycle -- 11.1. Basic physics of torque -- 11.2. Rotational equilibrium -- 11.3. Mechanical advantage -- 11.4. Energy aspects of a high mechanical advantage -- 11.5. Multiple lever system -- 11.6. Early direct drive bicycles -- 11.7. High-wheelers -- 11.8. The safety bicycle -- 11.9. Force transmission in a geared bicycle -- 11.10. Multispeed gearing--force analysis -- 11.11. Gearing and pedaling cadence -- 11.12. Gearing and pedaling force -- 11.13. Braking -- 11.14. Wheelies -- 11.15. Headers.
    12. Centripetal acceleration--turning and bicycle stability -- 12.1. Review of Newton's laws--centripetal force and acceleration -- 12.2. Making a turn -- 12.3. Banked surface -- 12.4. Equilibrium and stability -- 12.5. Equilibrium and stability with multiple points of support -- 12.6. Stability of runners -- 12.7. Stability of sprinter -- 12.8. Equilibrium and stability with single point of support -- 12.9. Stability of broom when not in equilibrium -- 12.10. Stability of bicycle when not in equilibrium -- 12.11. Self stability of a bicycle -- 12.12. Summation of bicycle stability -- Appendices -- A. Bibliography -- B. Common unit conversions -- C. Trigonometric values.
    The bicycle is a common, yet unique mechanical contraption in our world. In spite of this, the bike's physical and mechanical principles are understood by a select few. You do not have to be a genius to join this small group of people who understand the physics of cycling. This is your guide to fundamental principles (such as Newton's laws) and the book provides intuitive, basic explanations for the bicycle's behaviour. Each concept is introduced and illustrated with simple, everyday examples. Although cycling is viewed by most as a fun activity, and almost everyone acquires the basic skills at a young age, few understand the laws of nature that give magic to the ride. This is a closer look at some of these fun, exhilarating, and magical aspects of cycling. In the reading, you will also understand other physical principles such as motion, force, energy, power, heat, and temperature.
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Publisher: San Rafael California 40 Oak Drive, San Rafael, CA, 94903, USA : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • Format: 1 online resource (1 volume (various pagings)) : illustrations.
  • Identifier: ISBN 9781681744414;ISBN 1681744414;ISBN 9781681744438;ISBN 1681744430
  • Subjects: Bicycles -- Dynamics; Physics; Physics; Applied Physics; SCIENCE -- Physics -- General; Bicycles -- Dynamics; Physics; Electronic books
  • Language: English
  • Source: 01DAL UDM ALMA

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